doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16138
中国东部暖季对流云与层状云的比例及与降水的对应关系

The Ratio of Convective Clouds to Stratiform Clouds and Corresponding Precipitation during the Warm Season in Eastern China
摘要点击 488  全文点击 413  投稿时间:2016-02-23  修订日期:2016-11-14
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基金:  财政部/科技部公益类行业专项201306068,国家自然科学基金项目41475069、41205016
中文关键词:  对流云  层状云  降水  比例关系
英文关键词:  Convective clouds  Stratiform clouds  Precipitation  Ratio of convective clouds to stratiform clouds
           
作者中文名作者英文名单位
高翠翠GAO Cuicui解放军理工大学气象海洋学院, 南京 211101;韶关市气象局, 广东韶关 512000
李昀英LI Yunying解放军理工大学气象海洋学院, 南京 211101
寇雄伟KOU Xiongwei解放军94595部队, 山东高密 261500
孙国荣SUN Guorong解放军理工大学气象海洋学院, 南京 211101
引用:高翠翠,李昀英,寇雄伟,孙国荣.2017.中国东部暖季对流云与层状云的比例及与降水的对应关系[J].大气科学,41(3):490-500,doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16138.
Citation:GAO Cuicui,LI Yunying,KOU Xiongwei,SUN Guorong.2017.The Ratio of Convective Clouds to Stratiform Clouds and Corresponding Precipitation during the Warm Season in Eastern China[J].Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese),41(3):490-500,doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1610.16138.
中文摘要:
      基于1985~2011年逐时地面台站观测云资料,分析了对流云和层状云及其比例关系的时空演变特征,结合逐日融合降水资料研究了对流云、层状云与季风雨带的对应关系。结果表明,中国东部暖季(5~9月)对流云发生频率平均为15.4%,层状云为30.0%。对流云与层状云发生频率的比例在广东、广西、海南省东部和贵州省大部分地区大于1,其它地区均小于1。伴随季风雨带的北进南退,层状云发生频率和云量中心均与降水中心对应,且层状云云带与季风雨带位置吻合,随时间的演变趋势也相同,说明季风雨带主要由层状降水构成,对流云发生频率和云量大值中心则位于季风雨带南侧。对流云和层状云发生频率/云量的变化在华南地区和江淮流域呈显著负相关,云的类型主要由大气稳定度决定。对流云和层状云发生频率在华北地区呈显著正相关,水汽是形成云的决定因素。就降水频率而言,华南地区层状云降水和对流云降水各占一定的比例,而江淮流域和华北地区层状云降水频率更大。
Abstract:
      Based on hourly cloud observations at weather stations in China from 1985 to 2011, temporal and spatial distributions of convective and stratiform clouds and the ratio of convective to stratiform clouds are analyzed. Combined with merged daily precipitation data, the corresponding relations between convective (stratiform) clouds and monsoon rain belt are studied. The results indicate that in the warm season (May-September), the averaged occurrence frequency of convective clouds is 15.4% and that of stratiform clouds is 30.0% in eastern China. The ratio of occurrence frequency of convective clouds to that of stratiform clouds is greater than 1 in Guangdong, Guangxi, eastern Hainan and most areas of Guizhou Province, while it is less than 1 in other regions. The center of maximum occurrence frequency and areas of large amounts of stratiform clouds match well with the center of the monsoon rainfall. Their northward advances and southward retreats are consistent with the monsoon rain belt. This phenomenon indicates that precipitation on the monsoon rain belt is largely stratiform precipitation. On the other hand, the center of maximum occurrence frequency and areas of large amounts of convective clouds are located to the south of the monsoon rain belt. In South China and the Yangtze-Huaihe valley, changes in the occurrence frequency and amounts of convective clouds are opposite to those of stratiform clouds because the cloud types are dependent on atmospheric stratification. However, in northern China, convective clouds are positively correlated with stratiform clouds because atmospheric water vapor content is the critical factor that determines the formation and type of clouds. When the water vapor content increases in the monsoon season, the occurrence frequency and cloud cover of convective clouds and stratiform clouds both increase. If only considering the rainfall frequency, convective precipitation and stratiform precipitation coexist in southern China, but stratiform precipitation accounts for most of the precipitation in the Yangtze-Huaihe valley and North China.
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