doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1706.16273
中国东部季风区夏季四类雨型的水汽输送特征及差异

Characteristics of the summer moisture transport over the east China monsoon region of the four rainfall Pattern and their difference
摘要点击 2978  全文点击 264  投稿时间:2016-11-26  修订日期:2017-04-06
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基金:  国家自然科学基金;国家重点基础研究发展计划
中文关键词:  中国东部季风区, 夏季雨型, 水汽输送
英文关键词:  East  China monsoon  region,Rainfall  pattern in  summer, Water  vapor transport
        
作者中文名作者英文名单位
杨柳YANG Liu扬州大学物理科学与技术学院,国家气候中心
赵俊虎ZHAO Junhu国家气候中心
封国林FENG Guolin国家气候中心,扬州大学
引用:杨柳,赵俊虎,封国林.2018.中国东部季风区夏季四类雨型的水汽输送特征及差异[J].大气科学
Citation:YANG Liu,ZHAO Junhu,FENG Guolin.2018.Characteristics of the summer moisture transport over the east China monsoon region of the four rainfall Pattern and their difference[J].Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese)
中文摘要:
      利用1951~2015年NCEP/NCAR再分析逐日资料和中国160站月降水观测资料,及中国东部季风区夏季四类雨型(北方型、中间型、长江型和华南型)的划分结果,分析了东亚水汽输送与中国东部季风区夏季降水的关系,比较了四类雨型的水汽输送、收支特征及其差异,结果表明:(1)夏季影响中国东部季风区的水汽通道主要有以下6条:印度洋通道,表征印度季风区偏南的西风水汽输送;高原南侧通道,表征印度季风区偏北的西风水汽输送;太平洋通道,表征由西太平洋副热带高压带来(副高)的西太平洋的水汽;西风带通道,表征西风带的水汽输送;孟加拉湾通道,表征来自孟加拉湾向北的水汽输送;南海通道,表征来自印度洋和孟加拉湾在中南半岛转向及来自南海的水汽;与中国东部不同地区降水异常相联系的水汽通道存在明显的差异,且同一条水汽通道在夏季不同阶段与降水的关系也不尽相同;(2)四类雨型的水汽输送和收支特征有明显的差异,华北盛夏降水主要受亚洲季风水汽输送的影响,其次是西风带水汽输送,北方型年二者往往偏强,尤其是季风水汽输送增加一倍以上,贡献也明显增加,20世纪70年代中期之后,季风水汽输送显著减弱,西风带水汽输送的重要性相对增大;淮河流域夏季降水异常主要受太平洋通道水汽输送异常的主导,其次是高原南侧通道水汽输送,二者偏强并在淮河流域辐合时,淮河流域降水偏多形成中间型年;长江中下游地区夏季降水主要受太平洋通道水汽输送异常的主导,长江型年,副高西北侧的西南水汽输送异常加强,并与北方冷空气异常在长江流域辐合,区域为正的水汽净收支;华南地区夏季降水则受印度洋通道、太平洋通道及南海通道的共同影响,当三条通道异常偏强,水汽与北方冷空气在华南地区辐合,形成华南型年。本研究所得结论加深了我们对四类雨型形成机理的认识,并为汛期主雨带的预测提供了参考。
Abstract:
      By using the reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), and the classification results of four summer rainfall patterns (FRP) over the east China monsoon region based on monthly rainfall data at 160 stations from the China Meteorological Administration (NCP: the northern China rainfall pattern,IRP: the intermediate rainfall pattern,YRP: the Yangtze River rainfall pattern, SCP: the south China rainfall pattern),the climatic characteristics of moisture transport over east China monsoon region and their relationships with summer precipitation, as well as the differences of moisture transport among the FRP are investigated. The results indicate that: (1) there are six Moisture Transport Channels (MTC) that can effect the summer rainfall over the east China. The first one is Indian Ocean Moisture Transport Channel (IOMTC), which indicates the north moisture transport from Indian monsoon region. The second one is Tibetan Plateau Southern Side Moisture Transport Channel (TPMTC), which indicates the south moisture transport from Indian monsoon region. The third one is Pacific Ocean Moisture Transport Channel (POMTC), which indicates the moisture from the western Pacific brought by the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH). The fourth one is Westerly Moisture Transport Channel (WMTC), which indicates the moisture from westerly circulation. The fifth one is Bay of Bengal Moisture Transport Channel (BBMTC), which indicates the northerly moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The last one is South China Sea Moisture Transport Channel (SCSMTC), which indicates the moisture that comes from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal and turns to the Indo-China Peninsula and the moisture from the South China Sea merging with crossing equator moisture therein. There are obvious differences in the vapor paths associated with the precipitation anomalies over different areas in eastern China. Furthermore, the relationship between the same vapor path and precipitation on different summer stages is not entirely the same. (2) There are obviously differences in moisture transport and budget among the four summer rainfall patterns (FRP). The midsummer (July and August) precipitation anomaly in the North China is strongly influenced by the Asian monsoon moisture transport, then by the westerly moisture transport; while in NCP years, that two types of moisture transport both tend to be much stronger, especially the former one whose strength more than doubled and contribution to NCP also increases significantly. However, the moisture transfer by Asian monsoonal currents underwent an abrupt weakening at the end of the 1970s, to a certain degree, leading to the increasing of the contribution of westerly moisture transport to NCP. The anomalous of summer precipitation over Huaihe River Basin significantly correlates with the POMTC, then with the TPMTC. The precipitation over the Huaihe River Basin increases when the moisture transport of the two kinds of MTC enhances and converges over Huaihe River Basin, then forming the IRP. The summer precipitation over the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Basin (MLYRB) is dominated by anomalous moisture transport of POMTC.. As for the YRP years, the moisture transport from the northwest side of the WPSH strengthens as well as the cold air anomaly. These two systems converges over MLYRB. The summer precipitation over South China is affected by the IOMTC, POMTC and SCSMTC. When the moisture transport of the three MTCs are stronger and merges with the cold air over the south China, then forming the SCP. The conclusions of this study can enhance our understanding about the formation mechanisms of FRP, and provide reference for the prediction of the main rain belt during rainy season.
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