doi:  10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1903.18252
全球大气能量的时空特征及变化趋势分析

An Analysis of Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Trends of Global Atmospheric Energy
摘要点击 414  全文点击 53  投稿时间:2018-11-07  修订日期:2019-01-26
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基金:  科技部国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFA0601801、国家自然科学重点基金项目41530424、海洋局国际合作项目 GSAI-IPOVAI-03
中文关键词:  大气能量  时空特征  变化趋势  全球  主模态
英文关键词:  Atmospheric  energy, Spatiotemporal  characteristics, Trends, Global, Leading  mode
              
作者中文名作者英文名单位
陈凯奇CHEN Kaiqi北京师范大学全球变化与地球系统科学研究院
李建平LI Jianping北京师范大学全球变化与地球系统科学研究院
谢铁军XIE Tiejun北京师范大学全球变化与地球系统科学研究院
汪秋云WANG Qiuyun北京师范大学全球变化与地球系统科学研究院
王兰宁WANG Lanning北京师范大学全球变化与地球系统科学研究院
引用:陈凯奇,李建平,谢铁军,汪秋云,王兰宁.2019.全球大气能量的时空特征及变化趋势分析[J].大气科学
Citation:CHEN Kaiqi,LI Jianping,XIE Tiejun,WANG Qiuyun,WANG Lanning.2019.An Analysis of Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Trends of Global Atmospheric Energy[J].Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese)
中文摘要:
      大气能量学是大气科学重要的组成部分,了解大气能量的时空分布和变化特征,能够为大气科学研究,尤其是气候变化研究提供新的思路和手段。本文基于1948~2016年NCEP逐月再分析资料,从大气的总能量及其内能、位能、潜热和动能的分布、变化趋势和主模态变化等方面阐释了全球大气能量变化的整体特征。主要结论如下:(1)除高海拔地区外,总能量呈现从赤道向两极逐渐递减的分布,且全球大部分地区呈增加趋势,内能和位能的分布和变化与总能量较为接近;潜热能的极大值区和显著变化区均位于赤道及低纬地区;动能的极大值区分布在中纬度长波槽和西风急流出口区,其在南半球双西风急流区的变化最为显著。(2)总能量呈现出不连续的阶段性跳跃式增长特征;北半球的总能量多于南半球,而增速却慢于南半球,即两半球间的能量呈趋同趋势;海洋上空的总能量多于陆地,且海陆间差额有增大趋势;火山爆发事件可能对大气能量在年际尺度上的减少有重要作用。(3)大气各能量第一模态的空间特征与其各自变化趋势分布非常相似,并先后在1975年左右发生了年代际突变。就第二模态而言,大气的总能量、内能和位能从整体上反映出南北极与其它地区呈反向变化的特征;部分低纬度地区的潜热能与其它地区呈反向变化;动能主要呈现从热带太平洋向南北两极的经向波列分布;它们的时间系数均有一定的多年代际变化特征,可能与气候系统的内部变率有关。
Abstract:
      Atmospheric energetics is an important part of atmospheric science. Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of atmospheric energy can provide new ideas and methods for atmospheric research, especially climate change. On the basis of NCEP monthly reanalysis data from 1948 to 2016, this paper explains the whole feature of global atmospheric energy changes from the distribution, trends and dominant modes change of total energy, internal energy, potential energy, latent heat energy and kinetic energy. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) apart from high altitude areas, total energy decreases from the equator to the poles, and most parts of the world are increased. The distribution and variation of internal energy and potential energy are closely related to the total energy. The maximum area and significant change zones of latent heat energy are located in the equator and low latitudes. The maximum area of kinetic energy locates in long-wave trough of middle latitudes and outlet zone of westerly jets. In addition, the variations in kinetic energy located in double westerly jets in the southern hemisphere is most obvious. (2) The total energy shows the characteristic of discontinuous periodical leap growth. The total energy of the northern hemisphere is more than that in the southern hemisphere, but the speed-up of the northern hemisphere is slower than the southern hemisphere. That is, the energy between the northern and southern hemispheres tends to be homoplasy. The total energy above the ocean is more than that of the land, and that gap has widened. Volcanic eruptions may have an important effect on the interannual reduction of atmospheric energy. (3) Spatial characteristics of the first leading mode of each components of atmospheric energy are coincided with their distribution of trends, and they had occurred decadal catastrophe around 1975. As a whole, the second leading mode of the total energy, internal energy and potential energy of atmosphere reflect that the north and south pole change in a reversed way to other regions. Latent heat energy in some lower-latitude areas shows an opposite change tendency to the rest of the world. The kinetic energy mainly shows the meridional wave train distribution from the tropical Pacific to the north and south poles. Time series of the second leading mode possess the characteristics of multi-decadal variations, and they may relate to the internal variability of the climate system.
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